Języki khoisan

Języki khoisan (lub khoesan, przestarzała nazwa to “buszmeno-hotentockie”) to termin stosowany w odniesieniu do około 30 języków używanych (albo używanych do niedawna – wiele z nich jest na skraju wymarcia) w RPA (szczątkowo), Namibii, Botswanie i Angoli (głównie, ale nie wyłącznie w niecce Kalahari) i Tanzanii (języki Hadza i Sandawe). Poniżej krótki rzut oka na temat.

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Typology of ethnic slurs – a sketch

I am interested, as you may’ve noticed, in many things linguistic, but verbal aggression is one of my special interests. Not that I am advocating it, but I find it fascinating how creative a man can be when it comes to denigrating, offending or hurting his fellows.

Interestingly in multicultural societies of much of the modern Western world, it is the race/etnicity slurs which carry the strongest taboo. There seems to be a sort of historical progression in terms of ‘strong language’, starting from proper swears, that is invocation of religious themes and ill-wishes (wishing somebody’s death or disease), then going through matters related to defecation and procreation, and finally arriving at the present state, where it is the ethnicity/race that has the most shock value. You can pepper your sentences with “shit” and “fucking” all you like and still pass for a subtle intellectual, but if you use the n-word, boy, you’ll get some attention.

Below you can find the beginnings of my typology of ethnic slurs with an emphasis on odd, old-fashioned, no longer too malicious ones. I am eager to learn more and wait for similar ‘national nicknames’ from your own language that I could put in here. Note, though that the stuff related to “race” (as if such thing existed), doesn’t interest me that much, nations do.

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