Let’s stop talking about how this blog is being reactivated and start actually, um… reactivate it, shall we? I thought it would be a good idea to make a series of posts explaining how does one express in Lezgi some particularly important notions.
I want to start with… the verb to want, why not? Brace yourselves now and here we go:
The verb кIан k’an ‘to want’ is one of small number of so-called defective verbs, which means it lacks some grammatical forms the other verbs have (for instance, it has no past tense or Aorist) and behaves somewhat differently from them. But we will leave the grammar talk for later and focus on practical usage of this verb.
1. Somebody wants something
To say that somebody wants something (eg. an apple) you put that somebody’s name in the dative case (-з / -z ending) and leave the word for the thing being wanted as it is (absolutive case = no ending). Then comes either кIанзава k’anzava or кIанда k’anda (both forms have the same meaning)
Заз картуф кIандач
Zaz kartuf k’andach
I don’t want potatoes
Самираз цIийи машин кIанзава
Samiraz c’iji mashin k’anzava.
Samir wants a new car.
Чи халкъдиз азадвални садвал кIанда
Chi xalqdiz azadvalni sadval k’anda
Our people want freedom and unity
2. When somebody loves somebody…
Now it may be surprising, but кIан k’an means also ‘to love’. Grammatical structure as above:
Заз вун кIанзава
Zaz vun k’anzava
I love you
Ваз зун кIандани?
Vaz zun k’andani?
You(dat).I(abs).love-quest (-ни is a question marker)
Do you love me?
3. Somebody wants to do something
The structure is as follows: wanter is again in dative and the verb signifying what is wanted, in so-called infinitive (ie. –из /-з -iz/-z form)
Квез Лезги чIалал рахаз кIанзава
Kvez Lezgi ch’alal raxaz k’anzava
you want to talk in Lezgi language
Заз ваз куьмек гуз кIанда
Zaz vaz kymek guz k’anda
I want to help you
4. Somebody wants somebody else to do something.
Happens all too often, doesn’t it?
In this type of sentences, the structure is: somebody again in the dative; but the wanted verb in the Aorist form (-на / -na ending); and ‘somebody else’ in the case governed by the verb, most often absolutive or ergative.
Дидедиз бала ксуна кIанда
Didediz bala ksuna k’anda
Mother wants the child to sleep (ksun = to sleep needs nominative)
Дидедиз балади ктаб кIелна кIанда
Didediz baladi ktab k’elna k’anda
Mother wants the child to read a book.
Заз куьне Лезги чIал кIелна кIанда
Zaz kyne Lezgi ch’al k’elna k’anda
I want you to learn Lezgi language (k’elun = to read needs ergative)
5. It is wanted that someone does something.
Now, what happens if we take the previous construction, but leave only ‘somebody else’ omitting the ‘wanter’. The resulting sentence looks like this:
Куьне Лезги чIал кIелна кIанда
Kyne Lezgi ch’al k’elna k’anda
… and this means “You have to learn Lezgi”.
Which you really, really do. Honestly.
Now, if there are any questions or comments, I would absolutely love to hear them before we proceed to more complicated issues (eg. how to say “I loved you” or how to differentiate between “I don’t want you to do X”, and “I want you not to do X”). This blog will die again without constructive criticism.